Published HIPPY Studies

Abstracts of all published HIPPY research articles are available. Downloadable PDF files of the full articles are available to registered members. If you would like to become a member, please complete the Registration Form.

School Performance in Elementary, Middle, and High School: A Comparison of Children Based on HIPPY Participation During the Preschool Years

Citation:
Brown, A., & Lee, J. (2014). School performance in elementary, middle, and high school: A comparison of children based on HIPPY participation during the preschool years. School Community Journal, 24(2), 83-106. 
Abstract:
The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of the Home Improvement for Preschool Youngsters (HIPPY) program on school performance during the 3rd, 5th, 7th, and 9th grades. The study employed a quasi-experimental, post-hoc design using existing data on children who participated in the HIPPY program as 3-, 4-, or 5-year-olds, including: Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) scores, attendance records, school retention, and discipline referrals. Independent samples t-tests and chi-square analysis revealed that in all four grades HIPPY children had significantly higher rates of school attendance, were retained less often, had fewer repeat discipline referrals, scored higher, and had higher pass rates on the Reading and Math TAKS than matching children without HIPPY experience. Results indicate that children who participated in the HIPPY program as a 3-, 4-, or 5-year-old appear to have benefited long-term from the experience. The results also suggest that the HIPPY program intervention can increase school achievement and build a strong base for school success.

Improving Mother–Child Interaction in Low-income Turkish–Dutch Families: A Study of Mechanisms Mediating Improvements Resulting from Participating in a Home-based Preschool Intervention Program

Citation:
Tuijl, C. v. and Leseman, P. P.M. (2004), Improving mother–child interaction in low-income Turkish–Dutch families: A study of mechanisms mediating improvements resulting from participating in a home-based preschool intervention program. Infant and Child Development, 13: 323–340
Abstract:
This study examined whether the effects on cognitive and language outcomes of a recently developed home-based educational intervention program, Opstap Opnieuw, for 4–6-years-old disadvantaged children could be explained by improved mother–child interaction. The present sample (n=30) was drawn from a larger sample of Turkish–Dutch families (n=181) for which in a previous study significant effects of Opstap Opnieuw were found on children's (first) language and cognitive pre-math skill, 5 months after the program ended. The present study focused on two facets of interaction quality as possible mediators of these program effects: the mean cognitive distancing level of mothers' communication and instruction behaviour as an indicator of the cognitive and verbal stimulation provided, and the degree of cooperation as an indicator of mothers' social-emotional support to their children. Both measures were based on systematic observation of mother–child interaction during sorting tasks. Participation in the program appeared to improve mothers' social-emotional support behaviour substantially, but not their cognitive distancing behaviour. For Turkish (first language) vocabulary, about half of the program effect appeared to be mediated by the improved social-emotional support. For cognitive pre-mathematical skills, two-thirds of the program effect appeared to be mediated by improved social-emotional support. Mothers' cognitive distancing was moderately-strongly related to children's vocabulary development, but did not mediate program effects. Some implications of the results are discussed.

Ready or Not: One Home‐based Response to the School Readiness Dilemma

Citation:
Westheimer, M. (1997). Ready or not: One home-based response to the school readiness dilemma. Early Childhood Development and Care. 127-128.
Abstract:
This article describes in both theoretical and practical terms a parent-focused, homebased early intervention program known as HIPPY-the Home Instruction Program for Preschool Youngsters. By being explicit about the program's basic philosophy and elaborating on programmatic tensions as it gains a national scope and presence, the article presents the program in some detail and offers an insider's view into a few inherent tensions and issues associated with home visiting programs.

Efficacy of an intensive home-based educational intervention programme for 4- to 6-year-old ethnic minority children in the Netherlands

Citation:
Van Tuijl, C., Leseman, P. M., & Rispens, J. (2001). Efficacy of an intensive home-based educational intervention programme for 4- to 6-year-old ethnic minority children in the Netherlands. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 25(2), 148-159.
Abstract:
This paper reports the results of an intensive home-based educational intervention programme for 4- to 6-year-old children at risk of educational failure. The programme, Opstap Opnieuw (“Step-up Anew”), was developed in the Netherlands as an alternative to the well-known HIPPY-programme, of which a Dutch version was carried out in the early 1990s for ethnic minority groups, without apparent success. Building on the basic intervention strategy of HIPPY (i.e., involving mothers and paraprofessional aides), a new curriculum was developed based on recent theoretical insights in cognitive and language development, and emergent literacy and numeracy. The programme was carried out with Turkish and Moroccan immigrant families. For the Turkish group, the results were partly positive: There were modest effects of the programme on cognitive development and emergent numeracy, small effects on Turkish language development, but no effects on Dutch language development. In contrast, for the Moroccan group the effects were disappointing. The results are evaluated with respect to recent insights into effective strategies and essential ingredients of early educational intervention programmes.

Impact of HIPPY on home learning environments of Latino families

Citation:
Nievar, A. M., Jacobson, A., Chen, Q., Johnson, U., & Dier, S. (2011). Impact of HIPPY on home learning environments of Latino families. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 26(3), 268-277.
Abstract:
This study investigated effects of Home Instruction of Parents of Preschool Youngsters (HIPPY), a paraprofessional home visiting program, on parents and children. The program site served low-income, Spanish-speaking families. On average, mothers were 31 years old (SD = 4.78) and children were 3 or 4 years old (M= 3.92, SD = .92). Participants (n = 54) had more parenting self-efficacy and more enriched home environments than families on a waiting list (n = 54). In a regression on home environment, participation in the intervention was a stronger predictor than maternal education, depression, and stress. A third-grade follow-up of children in the program showed significantly higher math achievement when compared to low-income Latino third graders in the same school district. These findings appear to validate the HIPPY model, which suggests that parents gain confidence as their children’s teachers through their experiences in the program. HIPPY successfully addresses the need for culturally sensitive programming aimed at improving educational achievement among minority children.

Continuing effects of early enrichment in adult life: the Turkish Early Enrichment Project 22 years later

Citation:
Kagitcibasi, C.,Sunar, D.,Bekman, S.,Baydar, N., & Cemalcilar, Z. (2009). Continuing effects of early enrichment in adult life: the Turkish Early Enrichment Project 22 years later. Applied Developmental Psychology, 30(6):764–779
Abstract:
Long-term studies of early intervention, spanning over decades, are scarce in the United States and nonexistent in the rest of the world. The Turkish Early Enrichment Project (TEEP) is the only non-U.S. example to date. This paper reports a new follow-up assessment of the long-term outcomes of TEEP, an intervention carried out in 1983–1985 with 4–6 year old children from deprived backgrounds (previous evaluations were carried out at the completion of the intervention and seven years later). Findings from 131 of the original 255 participants indicate more favorable outcomes for children who received either mother training or educational preschool, or both, compared to those who had neither, in terms of educational attainment, occupational status, age of beginning gainful employment, and some indicators of integration into modern urban life, such as owning a computer. Further analyses of the intervention effects on the complete post-intervention developmental trajectories indicated that children whose cognitive deficits prior to the intervention weremild to moderate but not severe benefited from early enrichment. Thus, a majority of the children who received early enrichment had more favorable trajectories of development into young adulthood in the cognitive/achievement and social developmental domains than comparable children who did not receive enrichment.

Long-term effects of early intervention: Turkish low-income mothers and children

Citation:
Kagitcibasi, C., Sunar, D., & Bekman, S. (2001). Long-term effects of early intervention: Turkish low-income mothers and children. Applied Developmental Psychology, 22, 333-361.
Abstract:
The two studies reported in this paper comprise the Turkish Early Enrichment Project (TEEP) spanning a period of 10 years. Both studies were conducted with mothers and children in low-income, low-education areas of Istanbul. Study 1 involved an examination over 4 years of the effects of two different types of early enrichment (intervention), child-focused (center-based) and mother-focused (home-based). Study 2 was a follow-up of Study 1, 7 years after the end of project intervention. Although both interventions produced superior cognitive skills and school adjustment at the end of the program, follow-up assessments in Study 2 revealed that parent-focused intervention had numerous sustained effects in terms of school attainment, higher primary school grades and vocabulary scores, more favorable attitudes towards school, and better family and social adjustment, while most effects of center-based intervention had dissipated (with the notable exception of negative effects of custodial, as opposed to educational, day care). It is concluded that home-based early enrichment through the mediation of the mother is a highly effective strategy with multiple positive outcomes in contexts of socioeconomic disadvantage.

The Home Instruction for Parents of Preschool Youngsters program's relationship with mother and school outcomes

Citation:
Johnson, U. Y., Martinez-Cantu, V., Jacobson, A. L., & Weir, C. (2012). The Home Instruction for Parents of Preschool Youngsters program's relationship with mother and school outcomes. Early Education & Development, 23(5), 713-727.
Abstract:
This study investigated the relationship of the Home Instruction for Parents of Preschool Youngsters (HIPPY) program to mothers’ involvement in education at home and school, student school readiness in kindergarten, and student academic outcomes at 3rd grade. HIPPY serves a mostly minority, low-income family population and employs home visitors that are mostly female and Spanish speaking. Using a within-group analysis, we found that HIPPY mothers increased educational activities in their home with their children after 1 year of home-based intervention. The majority (84.8%) of HIPPY kindergartners were rated as ‘‘ready for school’’ by their kindergarten teachers according to a within-group analysis. In addition, between-group analyses showed that HIPPY kindergartners had higher attendance rates, higher prekindergarten enrollment, and higher promotion to 1st grade compared to other kindergartners in the school district. HIPPY 3rd graders scored significantly higher on a state-mandated math achievement test than their matched peers. Practice or Policy: The results suggest that HIPPY had a positive relationship with families and schools through improved parent involvement and student school outcomes.

Use of item response theory to develop a measure of first-grade readiness

Citation:
Gumpel, T. P. (1999). Use of item response theory to develop a measure of first-grade readiness. Psychology in the Schools, 36(4), 285-293.
Abstract:
This paper describes the development of a measure of readiness for first grade. The Readiness Inventory (RI), consists of six items, uses a 4-point rating scale, and has an alpha of 0.86. The RI was completed on 139 first-grade children and analyzed using a polytomous rating scale model of Item Response Theory. The instrument shows a high level of item and case fit. Based on an item map which elucidates the latent trait of school readiness as perceived by first-grade teachers, behaviors dealing with academic skills are less indicative of readiness than abilities dealing with role-governed behaviors or strategic learning behaviors. The RI was then validated through the examination of two different groups of preschool children: those who underwent an intensive school readiness preparation training (the Home Instruction Program for Preschool Youngsters or HIPPY) and those who did not participate in any such program. Scores on the RI were significantly higher for HIPPY graduates versus non-HIPPY graduates, a breakdown by sex revealed that only HIPPY boys out-performed their non-HIPPY boy peers on the RI. This validation study suggests that the RI is able to discriminate between ready and not-ready children.

Nine years of early intervention research: the effectiveness of the Home Interaction Program for Parents and Youngsters (HIPPY) in Australia

Citation:
Dean, S. & Lueng, C. (2010) Nine years of early intervention research: the effectiveness of the Home Interaction Program for Parents and Youngsters (HIPPY) in Australia. Bulletin - April 2010, pp. 14-18.
Abstract:
This evaluation has been used to inform the research design and questions of the current national evaluation so as to build the evidence base of the effectiveness of HIPPY in Australia.

The impact of the Home Instruction for Parents of Preschool Youngsters (HIPPY) program on school performance in 3rd, 5th, 7th and 9th grades

Citation:
Brown, A. L. (2012). The impact of the Home Instruction for Parents of Preschool Youngsters (HIPPY) program on school performance in 3rd, 5th, 7th and 9th grades. 17th International Roundtable on School, Family, and Community Partnerships. Vancouver, Canada.
Abstract:
A presentation of a study investigating the longitudinal effects on school performance of students' participation in the Home Instruction for Parents of Preschool Youngsters (HIPPY) program as measured by attendance, retention rate, school discipline referrals, standardized test scores and passing rate of standardized tests.

Reaching out and making a difference: The context of meaning in a home-based preschool program

Citation:
Britt, D. W. (1998), Reaching out and making a difference: The context of meaning in a home-based preschool program. Journal of Community Psychology, 26(2): 103–118.
Abstract:
Two years in the operation of a local HIPPY (Home Instructional Program for Preschool Youngsters) are examined to highlight the impact of changed context on processes and impacts. Over the two years of operation, the program went from a staff consisting of a program director and paraprofessionals to an augmented staff which included a family support specialist. “Reaching out to families” and “making a difference” in their lives was a strong norm during both years of the program. The more resource-rich service context present in the second year, however, altered the nature of problems observed, directness of interventions tried, and the meaning and limits of what it meant to reach out to families and make a difference in their lives. Alternative interpretations are briefly discussed and eliminated.

The impact of the Home Instructional Program for Preschool Youngsters (HIPPY) on school performance in 3rd and 6th Grades

Citation:
Bradley, R. H., & Gilkey, B. (2002). The impact of the Home Instructional Program for Preschool Youngsters (HIPPY) on school performance in 3rd and 6th Grades. Early Education and Development, 13(3), 301-311.
Abstract:
A post hoc matching design was used to compare children who participated in the Home Instructional Program for Preschool Youngsters (HIPPY) throughout Arkansas to children from the same classrooms who had no preschool experience and children who had other preschool experiences in the third and sixth grades. The program showed modest positive impact on school suspensions, grades, classroom behavior, and achievement test scores at both grade levels.

Taking ownership: The Implementation of a non-aboriginal early education programme for the on-reserve children.

Citation:
Beatch, M & Le Mare, L. (2007). Taking ownership: The Implementation of a non-aboriginal early education programme for the on-reserve children. The Australian Journal for Indigenous Education, 36, 77-87.
Abstract:
In this qualitative study, I assessed the appropriateness of a non-Ahoriginal early childhood education intervention, the Home Instruction for Parents of Preschool Youngsters (HIPPY) program in 5 on-reserve First Nations communities, by focusing on the experiences of the program employees. Findings from ~ndividual and focus group interviews and researcher observations revealed a process of 'taking ownership' of the HIPPY program by these women. 'Taking ownership' included three sub-processes: (1) views regarding the strength of the program shifted from children's school readiness skills to supporttng cultural pride and awareness; (2) the women's self-identities moved from cultural disconnectedness to a strengthened Aboriginal identity; and (3) whether HIPPY is Aboriginal became an increasingly important issue for these women because they, as Aboriginal women, delitrered it. By taking ownership of and culturally contextualizing the HIPPY program these women have further ensured its appropriateness for their communities.

The effects of the Home Instruction Program for Preschool Youngsters on children’s school performance at the end of the program and one year later

Citation:
Baker, A. J. L., Piotrkowski, C. S., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (1998). The effects of the Home Instruction Program for Preschool Youngsters on children’s school performance at the end of the program and one year later. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 13(4), 571– 586.
Abstract:
The effectiveness of the Home Instruction Program for Preschool Youngsters (HIPPY)---a two-year, free, home-based, family-oriented, early childhood education intervention--was assessed in a longitudinal, two cohort, randomized experimental evaluation. One hundred and eighty-two low-income families (84 in HIPPY and 98 in the control group) were assessed at baseline, at the end of the program, and one year later. Outcomes included assessments of children's cognitive skills, adaptation to the classroom, and standardized achievement at the end of the two-year program, and classroom adaptation and standardized achievement one year later. Data were collected from objective measures, teacher ratings, and school records. Analyses of covariance were conducted controlling for baseline scores on child and family background variables. Results revealed that for Cohort I there were significant and educationally meaningful differences in children's school performance both at the end of the program and one year later. These results were not replicated in Cohort II. Attrition analyses did not reveal differences between groups and cohorts which would account for the lack of replication. Findings are interpreted as mixed support for the effectiveness of the HIPPY program to improve the chances that poor children will succeed in school.

Evaluating the effectiveness of the Home Interaction Program for Parents and Youngsters (HIPPY)

Citation:
Barnett, T., Diallo Roost, F., & McEachran, J. (2012). Evaluating the effectiveness of the Home Interaction Program for Parents and Youngsters (HIPPY). Family Matters, 91, 27-37.
Abstract:
Children living in disadvantaged areas are vulnerable to developmental delay. In 2009, the Australian Government commenced the rollout of the Home Interaction Program for Parents and Youngsters (HIPPY) to 50 socially disadvantaged communities across Australia. HIPPY aims to support parents in their role as their four-year-old child’s first teacher, so that their child starts school on an equal footing to that of their more advantaged peers. A two-year quasi-experimental research design was used to evaluate the effectiveness of HIPPY. A propensity score matching technique was used to identify a matched control group from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (LSAC). Positive effects were found across a number of important developmental domains and spheres of influence, including the child’s cognitive ability and social-emotional adjustment, the parent’s self-efficacy and parenting style, the home learning environment, and the parents’ social connectedness and inclusion. Currently, HIPPY operates as a targeted place-based initiative. But, if the program is to have an impact on reducing social inequalities in child school readiness at the population level, it will need to reach the majority of parents and vulnerable children who are in need of more support and be linked to a universal early childhood education and care platform.

The Home Instruction Program for Preschool Youngsters (HIPPY)

Citation:
Baker, A. J. L., Piotrkowski, C. S., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (1999). The Home Instruction Program for Preschool Youngsters (HIPPY). Future of Children, 9(1), 116-133.
Abstract:
The Home Instruction Program for Preschool Youngsters (HIPPY) is a two-year homebased early education intervention program designed to help parents with limited formal education prepare their four- and five-year-oldc hildren for school. This article begins with a brief overview of the HIPPY program and then presents the findings from a series of interconnected research studies, including a two-site, two-cohort evaluation in New York and Arkansas, a one-site case study, and a three-site qualitative study. With respect to program effectiveness, results varied across the New York and Arkansas sites and across participating cohorts at each site. For Cohort I, children who had been enrolled in HIPPY scored higher than children in the control/comparison groups on measures of cognitive skills (New York), classroom adaptation (New York and Arkansas), and standardized reading (New York); and more children were promoted to first grade (Arkansas). For Cohort II, comparison group children outperformed HIPPY children on school readiness and standardized achievement at posttest (Arkansas). Analyses to account for the differing results between cohorts were inconclusive. Qualitative analyses revealed considerable variation in parent involvement in HIPPY. Program staff identified four patterns of attrition from HIPPY: (1) early attrition within the first month after enrollment, (2) attrition between the program's first and second years, (3) attrition due to changes in the life circumstances of participating families, and (4) attrition due to turnover among the home visitors. Families were more likely to participate in in-home than out-of-home aspects of the program (for example, group meetings), but different family characteristics were associated with participation in the in- and out-of-home aspects of the program. The authors conclude with recommendations for future practice and research.

The Role of Preschool Home-Visiting Programs in Improving Children’s Developmental and Health Outcomes

Citation:
Council on Community Pediatrics. (2009). The role of preschool home-visiting programs in improving children’s developmental and health outcomes. Pediatrics,123, 598-603.
Abstract:
Child health and developmental outcomes depend to a large extent on the capabilities of families to provide a nurturing, safe environment for their infants and young children. Unfortunately, many families have insufficient knowledge about parenting skills and an inadequate support system of friends, extended family, or professionals to help with or advise them regarding child rearing. Home-visiting programs offer a mechanism for ensuring that at-risk families have social support, linkage with public and private community services, and ongoing health, developmental, and safety education. When these services are part of a system of high-quality well-child care linked or integrated with the pediatric medical home, they have the potential to mitigate health and developmental outcome disparities. This statement reviews the history of home visiting in the United States and reaffirms the support of the American Academy of Pediatrics for home-based parenting education and support.

The impact of early intervention on the school readiness of children born to teenage mothers

Citation:
Brown, A. L. (2013). The impact of early intervention on the school readiness of children born to teenage mothers. Journal of Early childhood Research, 11(2).
Abstract:
This study examined the effect of participation in the Home Instruction for Parents of Preschool Youngsters program on the school readiness of children born to teenage mothers versus children born to traditional-age mothers participating in the Home Instruction for Parents of Preschool Youngsters program. A 45-item survey was collected from the kindergarten teachers of both the children of teenage mothers in the Texas Home Instruction for Parents of Preschool Youngsters program and a matched control group. The survey consisted of five subsections: socioemotional development, approaches to learning, physical development, language development, and general knowledge. Results of independent samples t-tests indicated no statistical difference between the two groups. These results seem to suggest that the curriculum used by the Home Instruction for Parents of Preschool Youngsters program, which focuses on supporting parents as their child’s first teacher, helps to mitigate any potential negative effects on being a child of a teenage mother.

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